The windows faced the streets and the houses had tiled bathrooms. The towns were divided into two parts: Upper part or Citadel and the Lower part. Also known as the Harappan civilization, it dates back to 2500 years ago. The main streets and roads were set in a line, sometimes running straight for a mile, and were varying in width from 4 … It is interchangeably also referred to as the Harappan civilization, due to its association with Harappa which was the first city to be discovered in Punjab, Pakistan. Later excavations at Kalibangan made the following specific discoveries: The evidences of two types of burials are also found: Kot-Diji is known more as a pre-Harappan site. The Great Bath was probably used for ritual bathing. The script has not been deciphered so far, but overlaps of letters show that it was written from right to left in the first line and left to right in the second line. Current Events, Debates, MCQs. Working floors, consisting of rows of circular brick platforms lay to the south of granaries and were meant for threshing grain and evidence of coffin burial and cemetery ‘H’ culture. It gives the impression of a pre-Harappan fortified settlement. The important findings at the site include pottery, ornaments, copper axes, chert blades, terracotta blades, one inscribed steatite seal with typical Indus pictographs, several burials interred in oval pits and a rectangular mud brick chamber. Elsewhere in the contemporary world mud bricks were used. Amri also gives evidence of pre-Harappan settlement. Maximum number of seals discovered is made of steatite with the unicorn symbol being discovered on the maximum number of seals. were practiced. 68. It extended from Manda in Jammu in the north to Daimabad in the south and from Alamgirpur in western U.P. This test is Rated positive by 93% students preparing for UPSC.This MCQ test is related to UPSC syllabus, prepared by UPSC teachers. However the most impressive of the figurines is the bronze image of a dancing girl (identified as a devdassi) found at Mohenjodaro. The Indus valley civilization gradually developed to a full-fledged civilization which has been established through a continuous sequence of strata named as Pre-Harappan, Early Harappan, Mature Harappan and Late Harappan stages or phases. Though lot of buildings and bricks were found, no brick kilns have been found so far. 5. Around 3300 BC has established the civilization of the Indus Valley. The Indus Valley people had achieved a great skill in drawing the figures of men, animals and various other objects of nature and were fully conversant with the art of craving with figures on ivory, soap- stone, leather, metal and wood proving their artistic acumen. The script is not alphabetical but pictographic (about 600 undeciphered pictographs). Indus valley civilization is also known as Saraswati-Sindu civilization or Harrapan. The people of this culture were not acquainted with iron at all. The excavations of Sutkagendor have revealed a twofold division of the township: the Citadel and the Lower City, it is said that Sutkagendor was originally a port which later cut off from the sea due to coastal uplift. The discovery of cinerary urns and jars, goblets or vessels with ashes, bones or charcoal may however suggest that during the flourishing period of the Indus valley culture, the third method was generally practiced. 3. This flourished between 2700 BC and 1900 BC (Civilization of the Mature Indus Valley). A seal with a picture suggesting Pashupati Mahadev and this city is also an extreme example of conservatism, as despite having been flooded almost nine times, they never tried to shift to a safer place. The Indus people were the first to produce cotton in the world. Over 1000 Indus Valley Civilization sites have been discovered. Known as Harappan Civilisation, it existed between 3300 BC to 1900 BC. The remains of Kot-Diji suggest that the city existed in the first half of the third millennium B.C. Download Indus Valley Civilization notes PDF. Weights and measures of accuracy existed in Harappan culture (found at Lothal). Raw materials for these came from different sources: gold from north Karnataka, silver and Lapis Lazuli from Afghanistan and Iran, copper from Khetri and Baluchistan, etc. Kalibangan was an important Harappan city. Rigvedic Aryans knew gold, silver and copper whereas Indus Valley people knew only copper and iron. for 800 years. 10 lessons. Aryans invaded and conquered the IVC. Excavations at the site have led to the following specific findings: Two rows of six granaries with brick platforms; 12 granaries together had the same area as the Great Granary at Mohenjodaro. Evidence of double burial (burying a male and    a female in a single grave) found in three graves whereas in Kalibangan one such grave has been found and evidence of games similar to modern day chess and An instrument for measuring 180, 90, 45 degree angles (the instrument points to modern day compass). Through excavations, the evidence of bead maker’s shops has come to light; it was the only Harappan city without a citadel. A large granary (the largest building of Mohenjodaro) which suggests extreme centralization as the ruling authorities must have first brought the agricultural produce here and then redistributed it. The weights were made of limestone, steatite, etc. Dead bodies were placed in the north-south orientation. Women wore heavy bangles in profusion, large necklaces, ear-rings, bracelets, figure-rings, girdles, nose-studs and anklets. A dockyard has been discovered at Lothal. Lamp posts at intervals indicate the existence of street lighting. Town Planning: The excavations of the ruins showed a remarkable skill in town planning. One theory claims that the Indo-European tribe i.e. (a) Houses of Indus Valley Civilization were one or two stories high, made of baked (Pucca) bricks, with flat roofs. Topic – Indus Valley Civilization – 100 Must-Know Facts– UPSC GS-I Indus Valley Civilization (IVC) is one of the four great civilizations of the world. The site intends to provide free study notes, knowledge or information related to IAS/RAS exams that can help to crack these Examinations. onwards refer to trade relations with Meluhha, the ancient name of the Indus region. Single room barracks just below the walls of the citadels for the labourers and factory workers. The Indus Valley Civilization (IVC) was a Bronze Age civilization (3300-1300 BCE; mature period 2600-1900 BCE) extending from what today is northeast Afghanistan to Pakistan and northwest India. Also there was an organization like a municipal corporation to look after the civic amenities of the people. The main streets and roads were set in a line, sometimes running straight for a mile, and were varying in width from 4 meters to 10 meters. Evidence of direct trade and interaction with Mesopotamia. Harappan civilization forms part of the proto history of India i.e. More than 100 sites belonging to this civilization have been excavated. Nor did they ever try to build strong embankments to protect themselves from floods. There was no metallic money in circulation and trade was carried through Barter System. Mohenjodaro and Harappawere unearthed. The methodology of system of governance as well as the institutions is something that is least known to the present […] A ship designed on a seal, a terracotta ship and a painting on a jar resembling the story of the ‘cunning fox’ and the ‘thirsty crow’ narrated in Panchatantra. 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