Photograph of a compacted zone of soil immediately below the plough layer in a cropping soil. land degradation as the long-term reduction in the capacity of the land to perform ecosystem functions and services (including those of agro-ecosystems and urban systems) that support society and development (LADA, 2005). Indirectly it lowers productivity through its adverse effects on the availability of nutrients. The degradation or deterioration of soil may be caused by the following factors: 1. (And Ways to Dispose of Them), Are Yogurt Cups Recyclable? Answer Now and help others. Mining disturbs the physical, chemical and biological features of the soil. Biological factors refer to the human and plant activities that tend to reduce the quality of the soil. Destruction of natural vegetation cover is a major factor responsible for erosion of soils by water and wind. According to Global Assessment of Soil Degradation (GLASOD), deforestation is the main cause of soil erosion by wind in about 98% of the area. 10 Soil compaction. Soil quality decline is one of the main causes of land degradation and is considered to be responsible for 84% of the ever-diminishing acreage. Linkages with poverty are well established and current remedial programs can be identified. Soil erosion is the major cause of soil degradation. are conditions cause water logging. Soil degradation examples include a decline in soil fertility, adverse changes in alkalinity, acidity or salinity, extreme flooding, use of toxic soil pollutants, erosion, and deterioration of the soil’s structural condition. In India pasture land area is decreasing day by day due to expansion of agricultural land. Again, most of the runoff and sediments from urban areas are extremely polluted with oil, fuel, and other chemicals. This is a question and answer forum for students, teachers and general visitors for exchanging articles, answers and notes. A study of the current trends in agronomic practices has suggested that the nutrients deficiency is further aggravated by continued use of high yielding crop varieties, intensive cropping pattern and relatively poor fertilizers. The causes of land degradation can be divided into natural hazards, direct causes, and underlying causes. This often causes over-exploitation of the natural resources, and contributes to environmental erosion. The latest data provided by Sehgal and Abrol (1994) show that the total degraded land in India is 187.8 million ha, of which 162.4 million ha is degraded due to soil erosion alone (Table 27.6). The excessive use and misuse of fertilizers kill … In the long-term, the physical forces and weathering processes lead to the decline in soil fertility and adverse changes in the soil’s composition/structure. Soil compaction is the process in which a stress applied to a soil causes densification as air is displaced from the pores between the soil grains. Soil degradation has been defined as a process that leads to decline in the fertility or future productive capacity of soil as a result of human activity (United Nations Environment Programme, 1993). (And Is It Bad For Environment), Are Solar Panels Recyclable? Soil fertility is reduced due to prolonged intensive cultivation. For this reason, the transformed land is unable to soak up water, making flooding more frequent. Also Read: What is Soil? Soil erosion is the main factor for soil degradation and is due to several mechanisms: water erosion, wind erosion, chemical degradation and physical degradation. Welcome to BiologyDiscussion! © 2021 . 2. Deforestation causes fast degradation when the soil is steep sloppy or easily erodible. With the reduction of deforestation, soil’s ability to naturally regenerate can be restored. Degradation leads to reduction in crop yield in the affected lands and a possible decline in cropping intensity. The data published by National Bureau of Soil Survey and Land Use Planning (Sehgal and Abrol, 1994) show that about 3.7 million ha land suffers from nutrient loss or depletion of organic matter. Soil is chiefly polluted by industrial and mining activities. The wasteland can be made useful by increasing productivity of land by using some useful methods as afforestation or by using bio-fertilizers. Recent satellite data show that the area under pasture land is severely degraded. Consequently, actions such as reducing irrigation, planting salt-tolerant crops, and improving irrigation efficiency will have high payoffs because the inputs and the labor-demanding aspects associated with reclamation projects are zero. 3. To restore the lost soil mineral matter and organic content, it would require what is known as land reclamation. Urbanization has major implications on the soil degradation process. Yeast: Origin, Reproduction, Life Cycle and Growth Requirements | Industrial Microbiology, How is Bread Made Step by Step? While soil degradation may occur naturally, it has been highly exuberated by anthropogenic activities. The Problem Today . According to National Commission on Agriculture (1976), about 6 million ha area is under water-logged condition. Let us have a detailed look at the causes, effects and prevention of soil erosion. (And 7 Ways to Reuse), Are Egg Shells Recyclable? Biological factors which affect the micro-flora and reduce the microbial activity of the soil. Disturbances in the hydrologic cycle due to inefficient use of surface irrigation water, poor land development, seepage and poor drainage have resulted in higher water tables. Organic matter is rapidly decomposed and leached or eroded by heavy rains. ), Can You Recycle Lotion Bottles? ), Can You Recycle Trophies? Before sharing your knowledge on this site, please read the following pages: 1. All Rights Reserved . Some bacteria and fungi overgrowth in an area can highly impact the microbial activity of the soil through biochemical reactions, which reduces crop yield and the suitability of soil productivity capacity. Examples of marginal lands are steep sloppy lands, shallow or sandy soils and the lands in dry and semi-dry areas. 20 Environmental Problems That Our World is Facing Today, deforestation are also the leading causes, Can You Recycle Photos? The topography of the land may also be a cause of soil erosion. The rates of soil erosion and the loss of soil nutrients, as well as the topsoil, are highly contributed by overgrazing. Degraded soils which result in poor or no production are also called problem soils. The major causes of land degradation in Ethiopia are the rapid population increase, severe soil loss, deforestation, low vegetative cover and unbalanced crop and livestock production. Land degradation in Calabar south also exhibits hydrological conditions, where vegetal cover is removed, the soil surface is exposed to the impact of raindrops which causes a sealing of the soil surface, and less rain then infiltrates the soil. The fatal nematodes threaten potato cultivation in the Nilgiris and, if not controlled they may pose threat to potato cultivation in that area. Productivity loss of some crops is given in Table 27.5. This poor condition of pasture lands is due to excessive grazing. With time, the sedimentation process can clog waterways, resulting in water scarcity. The soil quality decline is exuberated more and more as a result of the mechanization of agriculture that gives room for deep plowing, reduction of plant cover, and the formation of the hardpan. Erosion probably was, however, still an important cause of soil degradation. The annual loss of land is expected to go up to 10 million hectares by 2000 A.D.(Yadava 1996). Overgrazing by livestock can lead to land degradation Land degradation is a global problem largely related to agricultural use, deforestation and climate change. Experts suggest rotating pastured land used by the meat and dairy industries so less is being used at once. Salinity directly affects the productivity by making the soil unsuitable for crop growth. Governments, international organizations, and other environmental stakeholders need to ensure there are appropriate measures for making zero net deforestation a reality so as to inhibit soil degradation. Just like the old adage states that “prevention is better than cure,” so does the same concept apply in solving the worldwide problem of soil degradation through salinization. In which way can sewage be harmful to us? (And Are They Compostable? Preventing salinization in the first place is thus an environmentally friendly means of offering a solution to soil degradation. Share Your Word File Currently, 40% of soil in Africa is degraded. Out of 100 per cent potentially active lands only 44 per cent are available for cultivation and 56 per cent of land are non-available for cultivation. TOS4. In the soil erosion, uppermost fertile layer of soil which contains essential nutrients is lost. Erosion is strongly related to human activity. Soil Degradation are broken down to ; One (Physical) Two (Chemical) Three (Biological) subgroups ; 8 Soil degradation 9 what is Soil compaction? Rainfall, surface runoff, floods, wind erosion, tillage, and mass movements result in the loss of fertile top spoil thereby declining soil quality. These factors reduce the yield. To fill this knowledge gap, soil degradation simply means the decline in soil quality which comes about due to aspects such as improper land use, agriculture, and pasture, urban or industrial purposes. Among the major causes of degradation, water erosion is considered to be the most severe one which covers almost 87% of the affected area. The agricultural fertilizers and pesticides also damage marine and freshwater ecosystems and limit the domestic uses of the water for the populations that depend on them for survival. As an example, mining destroys crop cover and releases a myriad of toxic chemicals such as mercury into the soil thereby poisoning it and rendering it unproductive for any other purpose. The main cause of water erosion is removal of vegetation, over exploitation of vegetation, over grazing and improper agricultural practices. Content Guidelines 2. 12 billion to 27 billion annually. The following are the impacts of soil degradation: 1. Conserve Energy Future. by climatic factors such as drought and di minishing . The erodible material is almost devoid of organic matter and lacks in mineral plant nutrients. Examples include leaving the previous year’s crop residue on the surface to shield the soil from erosion and avoiding poor tillage methods such as deep plowing. Soil degradation is a global phenomenon. Other improper cultivation activities such as farming on steep slope and mono-cropping, row-cropping, and surface irrigation wear away the natural composition of the soil and its fertility and prevent soil from regenerating. These factors reduce the yield. Therefore, the misuse or excessive use of fertilizers increases the rate of soil degradation by destroying the soil’s biological activity and builds up of toxicities through incorrect fertilizer use. Erosion ditches and grass lines, installed with enforced communal labor, covered almost all the hillsides by the early 1990’s. Share Your PDF File The outcomes of soil erosion are reduced agricultural productivity, ecological collapse, soil degradation, and the possibility of desertification. The nation that destroys its soil, destroys itself. Secondly, it covers the soil in an impermeable layer of concrete that amplifies the amount of surface runoff which results in more erosion of the topsoil. Deforestation or destruction of forests accompanied by reduced frequency of rainfall leads to soil erosion and causes damage to agriculture property. The adverse effect of alkalinity on availability of nutrients is due to deflocculating effect of sodium ions. It affects global climate through alterations in water cycle and energy balances and disruptions of carbon, nitrogen and sulphur cycles. (And 9 Ways to Reuse Old Photos), Are Aluminum Cans Recyclable? 5. Waste lands are those which for one or the other reason have poor life sustaining property. The degradation or deterioration of soil may be caused by the following factors: 1. What is the significance of transpiration? The estimated annual loss of different crops due to soil degradation rangs from Rs. Soil erosion decreases soil fertility, which can negatively affect crop yields. Most agricultural practices involving the use of fertilizers and pesticides often entail misuse or excessive application, thereby contributing to the killing of soil’s beneficial bacteria and other micro-organisms that help in soil formation. The saline degradation is due to natural causes and poor irrigation practices which disturb the water cycle in areas. Avoiding deforestation completely is an uphill task. Soils are a fundamental natural resource, and are the basis for all terrestrial life. All these physical factors produce different types of soil erosion (mainly water and wind erosion) and soil detachment actions, and their resultant physical forces eventually change the composition and structure of the soil by wearing away the soil’s top layer as well as organic matter. Also, preserving the integrity of guarded areas can significantly reduce demonstration. (Michael Tewelde/AFP/Getty Images) This article is more than 1 … Either way, soil erosion can lead to severe environmental degradation since large areas of land can become useless due to the erosion of soil. This may include activities such as the addition of plant residues to degraded soils and improving range management. Chemical factors e.g. As populations grow, individuals can be sensitized and educated regarding sustainable forest management and reforestation efforts. Hence, the contributing factors to soil quality decline such as overgrazing, poor tillage methods, and deforestation are also the leading causes of desertification characterized by droughts and arid conditions. The reduction of soil nutrients because of alkalinity or acidity or waterlogging are all categorized under the chemical components of soil degradation. It is well known that mono cropping (growing the same crop on the same land year after year) often leads to increasing attack of pests and diseases. 2. This is otherwise known as conservation tillage, which means tillage mechanisms targeted at making very minimal changes to the soil’s natural condition and at the same time improving the soil’s productivity. According to an estimate of 1992, every year 20.2 million tonnes of NPK is removed by growing crops. Increased runoff from urban areas also causes a huge disturbance to adjacent watersheds by changing the rate and volume of water that flows through them and impoverishing them with chemically polluted sediment deposits. Natural hazards are the conditions of the physical environment which lead to the existence of a high degradation hazard, for example steep slopes as a hazard for water erosion. Because soil degradation contributes to land degradation, it also means that it creates a significant loss of arable land. Rainfall, surface runoff, floods, wind erosion, tillage, and mass movements result in the loss of fertile top spoil thereby declining soil quality.All these physical factors produces different types of soil erosion (mainly water and wind erosion) and soil detachment actions, and t… It is clear that the impact of land degradation is a drain on economic growth in Human activities such as poor farming practices may also deplete soil nutrients thus diminishing soil fertility. Deforestation causes soil degradation on the account of exposing soil minerals by removing trees and crop cover, which support the availability of humus and litter layers on the surface of the soil. Soil degradation has several adverse impacts on the environment. Physical factors, e.g. There are several physical factors contributing to soil degradation distinguished by the manners in which they change the natural composition and structure of the soil. What are the factors which induce heart failure? It occurs whenever the natural balances in the landscape are changed by human activity through misuse or overuse of soil.

When Can I Apply For An Over 60+ Oyster Card, The Sense Of Motion Created By Visual Tricks, Residency Match First Choice, Valence Bond Theory Of Coordination Compounds Pdf, Tighten Up Chords, As Sure As The Dawn Pdf, Ucla Harbor Medical Center,